Pilots Emergency Procedures Course
Course Duration - 20 Hours
Course Aim - To enable
participants to develop their skills and understanding of the
principles and practices of ship handling with emphasis on emergency
procedures and manoeuvres.
This aim will be achieved through a
concentrated period of practical exercises in the Manned Models
supported by a series of lectures.
Taxi to lake
0830-0900 Registration and
0900-1030 Familiarisation with Manned
"Revision of Principles" Lecture / Workshop
Practical consolidation Exercises
"Engine / Rudder failures" discussion
Manned model exercises involving equipment failures
and channel emergencies
1515-1715 Manned Model Exercises
1715 Taxi to Hotel
0815 Taxi to Lake
"Escort Towage" discussion
model exercises involving escort towage
model exercises involving towage
1715 Taxi to Hotel
0815 Taxi to Lake
Interaction Lecture and "General failures in
model exercises involving failures in confined
waters including interaction
1215-1230 Course Debrief
1230 End of Course. Taxi as
By the end of the course selected aspects of the following ship
handling and emergency procedures will have been addressed.
1 Revision of ship handling principles
to include slow speed control, critical manoeuvring and effect of
2 “Stop and Hold” in adverse
conditions, demonstrating the ability to maintain a safe position
until clear to proceed.
3 Evaluation of the effects of the use
of engines ahead and astern with the rudder disabled to keep the
ship in safe water.
4 Response to engine failure in channel
5 Response to thruster failure when
manoeuvring the ship.
6 Response to selected above manoeuvres
with the addition of current.
7 Revision of ship manoeuvring with
8 Arresting the drift of a disabled
9 Aborting an approach.
10 Response to selected above manoeuvres
in confined situations.
11 Interaction related difficulties.
12 Emergency response using escort
The optional objectives are available to
meet the varied demands of individual participants. Courses will be
adapted, where appropriate, in order to address specific techniques
and/or areas of specialization. These may include but are not
Shiphandling limitations based on relative weaknesses in the anchor
The safety parameters that must be maintained to enable the
effective use of anchors for ship handling.
Dredging one anchor to aid berthing.
Laying an anchor to aid berthing and departure.
The effect of the close proximity of banks and shallows
The effect of shallow water and banks during berthing
Manned Models are
a form of simulation and, as such, are subject to some limitations
and differences compared with a real ship, which have to be taken
into consideration :-
Due to the scaling factor, ship handling manoeuvres are carried
out in a shorter timescale than the real ship (or a real time
ship simulator). This permits each participant on the course to
conduct a large number of individual berthing and channel
manoeuvres, including re-runs when difficulty has been
experienced. It also means that an individual has to think very
quickly and thus the concentration and observation that is
important to the ship handler is emphasised.
- The scale of the model also means that speed is low in real
terms. The scaling factor is the square root of the scale.
Therefore on a 1:25 scale model the scaling factor is 5, so if
one is doing 1 knot in the model, this equates to 5 knots on the
real ship. Therefore, if approaching the berth with 0.5 mile to
run making good 1.5 knots, this will equate to 7.5 knots on the
real ship, much too fast !In fact an approach speed at this type
of distance needs to be down to 0.1 - 0.2 knots equating to 0.5
- 1.0 knot on the real ship. It is therefore quite normal for
course participants to experience problems on the first day in
adjusting to this low scale speed. These problems, however, are
overcome relatively quickly as excessive approach speeds are
very obvious and the results are often spectacular !
- The need to estimate distance is a fundamental factor in
establishing correct approach speed, and can be aided by using
"ships lengths" as a yardstick. At the pre exercise brief, the
candidate will be given a chart of the lake with the course and
an indication of distance to run marked up.
The wind cannot be scaled, but the lake has been laid out to
give optimum berth and channel protection from various wind
directions. Even in gale conditions areas of calm can be found
behind screens of trees and hedging, where useful exercises can
be conducted. The effect of wind on a ship is an integral
objective of a shiphandling course and it is not advantageous to
work exclusively in calm conditions. Every effort is made
however, to start with basic manoeuvres in sheltered waters. As
individual participants progress they will be subjected to
stronger winds to concentrate on specific objectives in this
subject area. Instructors will endeavour to conduct shiphandling
operations in the most appropriate scaled wind conditions for a
/ Debriefings - All participants will be fully briefed by
their instructor before each exercise commences to enable them
to formulate an exercise plan. Once an exercise is underway the
instructor remains on the jetty (or in an accompanying launch)
and does not intercede unless absolutely necessary. This is to
avoid breaking the concentration required during the exercise
and allows participants to learn, if necessary, by observing the
results of his actions. When the exercise is completed, a
comprehensive debriefing is conducted on the quayside to discuss
the results. Such debriefs are considered to be a most important
part of the course.
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